Levels of National Capability

Prior categorizations of world development were not flexible to changing technology or changing geopolitics. The Second world of the first, second and third world referred to the countries under Soviet control. The third world referred to the undeveloped world. There are non-controversial measurements of progress around access to basic needs. I will categorize as follows:…Continue Reading

Decreased iron levels in seawater make mussels loosen their grip

Mussels secrete sticky plaques that help them attach to wet surfaces, such as rocks on the beach. These adhesive structures are rich in iron, which is thought to help make the attachments strong yet flexible. Now, researchers reporting in Environmental Science & Technology have shown that mussels form weaker attachments in iron-deficient seawater, revealing a…Continue Reading

High levels of microplastics released from infant feeding bottles during formula prep

New research shows that high levels of microplastics (MPs) are released from infant-feeding bottles (IFBs) during formula preparation. The research also indicates a strong relationship between heat and MP release, such that warmer liquids (formula or water used to sterilise bottles) result in far greater release of MPs. In response, the researchers involved — from…Continue Reading