Chewing Food More Thoroughly Results in Reduced Insulin Output

Chewing Food More Thoroughly Results in Reduced Insulin Output


To determine the influence of masticatory efficiency on postprandial satiety and glycaemic response, twenty-one healthy males were recruited for this randomised cross-over trial. The participants consumed a fixed amount of pizza provided in equal-sized portions by chewing each portion either fifteen or forty times before swallowing. Subjective appetite was measured by appetite questionnaires at regular intervals for 3 h after the meal and plasma samples were collected for the measurement of selected satiety-related hormones, glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) concentrations. An ad libitum meal was provided shortly after the last blood sample was drawn and the amount eaten recorded. Compared with fifteen chews, chewing forty times per portion resulted in lower hunger (P=0·009), preoccupation with food (P=0·005) and desire to eat (P=0·002). Meanwhile, plasma concentrations of glucose (P=0·024), insulin (P

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